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A comparison between Antoni Gaudi (1852 – 1926) / Barcelona / Spain – - Façade of The Secret Family Temple with Poty Lazzarotto (1924-1998) Ctba-BR
As it is reported by Stella Pandell Russell in her work Art in the World, “… [. . .] The essence of creation lies in the recognition of beauty, when it occurs.”(Lippold, Sculpture, 1973). But the treasure of an expressive artistic work (Taylor 51-68) demands responsibility of governors to preserve it. What is the price that societies have been paying for such a long period of time so that the humanity can contemplate the genius spirits of Gaudi and Poty? In this sense, Curitiba has grown so much! Proper use of Architecture and Art! Governors from Curitiba during the last decades are based on the first projects of Jaime Learner, an architect, who promoted a revolution in terms of urban planning, and the city is considered one of the most beautiful towns in Brazil. Lazzarotto is the postcard of important buildings in Curitiba. His murals can be seen in the Government Palace, parks, museums, airport, close to the roads, squares, market, library, and as a façade in front of Guaíra Theater, which has been considered one of the biggest theaters of South America for a long time which main entrance made in concrete is Lazzarotto’s closest work to Gaudi’s. Like the Secret Temple, Guaíra Theater also started with a smaller project. The first theater was called Guairinha (“Diminutive of Guaíra in Portuguese”). Similarly, the other side of Secret Temple was also built in a second moment. The aggregation of Sculptural Arts (Russell 171) to the new buildings is remarkable in both cases, no matter the elements of Gaudi seem to be associated in order to compose the façade (Taylor 151). The elements are sculptural (See Russell 150) set on a special environment, a created space for them (Russell 213). Poty’s work, is also composed of different objects, designed and harmonized all together. They both have a special language (Russell 40), but as much as one looks to specific characteristics, as closer one can be to a common sense whenever artists manifest their creativity and potentiality, as it can be observed in this comparison. But it isn’t transparent. One has to have the desire to look and compare.
And Barcelona, located at the Mediterranean Sea in the very north of the Spanish coast, is certainly the most cosmopolitan and economically most active city in Spain. It has always proved its will to be modern, to follow the latest international tendencies or be ahead of them. One can see tradition and innovation side by side (See Russell 372). Considering tourism the architecture of Barcelona reflects the general approach to life. Barcelona has an old history, counting on monuments of Romanesque, Gothic and Renaissance specially those ones created in the last century. “Barcelona has been a center of Modernist architecture, distinguished by the works of Gaudí, and his contemporaries who gave exciting looks to it, but has remained since then at the top of modernity.
The confrontation of Gaudi and Poty’s façades provides personalization, and aggregation of an extra social value to institutions. Gaudi centers his attention to religious arguments – - (Frontal Façade – Jesus’ birth) 02 – - (See Russell 02), and Poty demonstrates a retrospective of the theater throughout the world in his Façade (See Russell 04).
“In accordance with Michael Foucault (1973) the intellectual practices can be identified as discourses that will look for a negation of the merely empirical status. These speeches aren’t only linked with the legitimization of power, but also how anyone can reach truth [. . .] ” (Alexander 38-39)
One can consider each created space is a social fact. As it is defined: “[. . .] the ways to do something, stable or not, whenever it’s possible, exercise an exterior coercion on the person, or all the way of an extension of a society, having a proper existence, independent of individual manifestations”(Durkheim 12). Both façades enchant anyone, addressing to imaginary spaces.
Comparing their artistic performances, Secret Family Temple, and Guaíra Theater Façades, no matter the splendor of the church itself, one can have an idea of personalized places. The context in each of them was involved should be observed so that the murals themselves can be understood as the emergence of contemporary social values, represented by their creations, enlightening the cities and enchanting church and theater goers, as well as tourists. “The reconstruction of the reality by the empirical characterization in terms of analysis and unification of the results, is a good way to keep longer the questions of the observer” (Orestan 31) . But the contemplation does not exclude anyone.
Antonio Gaudi inspired so many writers along these years since his first biographies were printed out, especially between 1829 and 1953.” Authors had Gaudi’s image confusing sometimes. A cultural and political Renaissance took place in Europe and that was the context.
It was a moment of economical prosperity and urban expansion with patronage of a middle class that wanted to be tune with the best European new styles. As Marx (68) observed about Religious convictions mainly in Europe: “ [. . . ] the critic of the last society, especially feudal with this one that had to fight against was close to critic that Christianity did about Paganism and Protestantism of Catholicism.
As Gaudi mentioned: “… something is done so that we can avoid the undone, and work results can be seen only by continuous work combining reflection and action, the precursor requisites of creativity”. He was born in June 25th, 1852 in Tierra Baja, in Tarragona, Spain. His works are still being conserved and his methods of work and investigation are known. He was considered a very intelligent little boy, but always sick. His desire to do something in terms of architecture started with the excursions they had at the time he and his friends started getting involved with speeches of recovering of the architectonic patrimony of their town. Then, he graduates in Architecture in 1878, in Condal where his skills were recognized not only for calculation but also a great creativity. His project was oriented by Violler-le-Duc, Elies Rogent, where he demonstrates great interest in Technology, Materials, Arts, applied to construction, and old styles well known in the past. He had to give proof of his capacity so that Elies Rogent gave him the tittle of Architect affirming that he did it for a fool or a genius. Opportunities to prove his competence were given starting with La Casa Vicens, and finally became accepted by the society of Barcelona. Eusebi Guell (1846-1918) got impressed with the singularity of a wooden crystal iron piece and from that time on, Guell became one of his most important clients. The 80’s represent progress in his career demonstrating his talent working in all forms of Architecture like, residences (Guell Palace), designs like El capricho de Comillas an Pabellón de la Compañia Transatlantica de la Exposición de Cádiz, and religious motifs – - Episcopal Palace of Astorga, the school of Teresinas and the Temple of Secret Family in Barcelona. He was helped by authorities like Enric d’Ósso, the founder of the school of “Las Teresinas” and the bishops Torras and Bages, the most influent personages of the religious ideologies at the end of the nineteenth century. The general thought of his modernist generation, nominated the Catalan movement that corresponds to Art Nouveau had its format in 1888. But Gaudi could go longer of the historical boundaries dominating the period and formulating his own concept of aesthetic, which made his style becoming unmistakable, and difficult to classify at the same time. He refuses the proposal to take part of the municipal elections in 1905 and dedicates time to execute the façade of Indications, The Secret Family Temple, until his death in 1926. “This façade demonstrates Gaudi’s preoccupation to portray Jesus’ birth, showing all the scenes and personages included in the passage, like the animals, plants, human figures, angels, and the secret family (St. Mary, St. Joseph, and baby Jesus). Gaudi took care even from the position of the entrance by showing the Birth Façade to the Orient because rising sun comes from this direction, and The Façade of Passion to the opposite side because of the sunset. “In 1900, this façade reached 32 meters. There are three doors. The first one on the left represents hope, the central one, Jesus’ birth, and the right one represents faith. Matemala helped Gaudi, in order to have very close reproductions considering animals, human bodies and figures he represented.”04 “The Secret Family is considered a standard gothic inspiration of modern architecture and the greatest project of Gaudi’s life. He portrays an entrance to the temple by presenting one thousand five hundred singers, seven hundred kids, five organs, and this monumental construction seems to be of a theater scenery.” 05
His relationship with people from the church should intensify his deep religious feelings and intentions. He dedicated a long time to work with Secret Family (1884) and even stopped to accept different projects (1908) working on it until 1926. The church, which remains on remodeling after 115 years since it was started, became a notorious center of visitation in Barcelona. Gaudhi was considered modern but not modernist. He was the son of his time, not because the incorporated modernity like some intellectuals interpreted his work. Gaudi got projection in Catalunia but not with the noise of scandalous passages because of his revolutionary concepts of Art, and there are those critics who could not understand him. Like Clemenceau repported: “Gaudi was an eccentric man, with the personality of a genius, sometimes rude with people who worked with him”. But he is also reported to be generous and honest. His biggest work was Celestial Jerusalem. Josep Carner and Puig Oriol (1884-1970), wrote: (“Si gozáis con el Modernismo/ no os quedéis a medio camino: / alcanzad el paroxismo/ de gozarlo con Gaudí”)05(Which means: One can better understand Modernism with Gaudi).
If we consider the new tendencies in terms of Arts in Brazil we do have to note that the beginning of the 50’s printed out a new radical changing in all the system of art. In 1922, (Gaudi was close to his end), one of the greatest movements of Art in Brazil took part, and was called the week of Modern Arts. Since that time Modernism was always the first reference in terms of tendencies.06 From Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, Poty was contemporary to all these events. But his work is still very regional and far away from all these tendencies. Gaudi and Poty could be themselves even competing with other artists from their time, and exposed to so many cultural influences.
As Regina Casillo comments: “All the cities have their own values, like Guignard is to Minas Gerais, Di Cavalcanti to Rio de Janeiro, and Curitiba was given the present by the Gods to have Napoleon Potyguara Lazzarotto as its main value (trans.).”06 Poty was born in Curitiba, in March 29th, 1924, providing a cue of his destiny. It is the date, of Curitiba’s birthday, as the ex-prefect Rafael Greca de Macedo replied: “The city he would never get stressed to portray on his paintings.” Poty’s work is basically centered in murals wherever visitors or not, go in the capital of Paraná, São Paulo or Rio.
His noticed talent designated Lazzarotto’s life since he was fourteen. He created a personage called Haroldo, and then, became famous because of his figures. His work is known throughout the world, especially in Rio de Janeiro where one of his murals was destroyed by the fire in 1964. In Sao Paulo he created the mural called Latin America Memorial. But it is in Paraná that his work is more representative.08 He attended the College of Arts in Curitiba. The murals are great, and remarks of his work are never confounded. His favorite materials are cement, glazed tiles, stained glass windows, and wood, and as it was already said in big murals like the one in “Largo da Ordem” representing the chariots of the grocers, basically Italian and Polish colonial people close to Largo da Ordem in Curitiba. Another wonderful work is the mural at 19 de Dezembro Square in celebration to the Centenary of Paraná. At Iguaçu Palace, one can see the mural Allegory of Paraná, which is the façade of Iguaçu Palace when it was inaugurated in 1953 (same technique of the Theater). The main work to be analyzed in front of Guaíra Theater that Poty’s façade is located. It portrays The Theater in the World (1969). “Before dying in 1998, Poty could see an exhibition organized by CEF; one of the strongest
banks in Brazil with designs, outlines, and miniatures that could be seen all together for the first time, as Mrs. Casillo explains.”09 Differently of Gaudi who left Secret Temple unfinished.
The preliminary point to be considered should be the fact that the first theater started to be built (1855) in Curitiba at the same time Gaudi was walking first steps (1852). But the first inaugurated one (1884) is now the building of the Public Library in Curitiba. Guaíra Theater was a prison originally, during the Federalist Revolution and only in 1900 it was reopened with the name Guayra. It was demolished. In 1952 it was rebuilt because of public request under the command of Rubens Meister (architect). The first stage was Salvador de Ferrante (1954) and the big one was built 16 years later. A fire destroyed the theater in 1970, and in 1975 it was finally concluded, becoming one of the greatest artistic-cultural-complexes of Latin America. Only after all these reforms, Poty Lazzarotto, the artist who signed the frontal façade and had already worked on the designs was contracted (He did not execute his work). He also projected the fire-curtain of the stage Bento Munhoz da Rocha Neto. He created the fire-curtain of the biggest theater known as Salvador de Ferrante Auditorium, both executed by Laila Tarran, and Carmen Carine. As Laila explained, Poty followed the execution of his works like the Façade of the theater, and even added things out of the project to the curtains. Gaudi didn’t, because of the accident that robbed his life.
The Façade of Guaíra Theater( 24,50 x 4.80) provides a wonderful view of the evolution of the theater throughout the world. Different tonalities of gray and white are observed (the moulds produced by Poty, were made of wood, providing a different tonality), as well as different levels of a plan structure of cement, divided in several rectangles, set in so many different planes (Some of them are negative). Contrary to the panel performed with the same technique (on the walls of Iguaçu Palace), one can observe that lines are different and variable. In Guaira mural, Poty uses band lines much more than straight lines, as it can be observed in the mural of Iguaçu Palace (Taylor 55). Poty is the son of European Immigrants, and he had the preoccupation to show people from the field and from the North of Brazil, known as caipiras, and cangaçeiros. The existence of communities with different costumes can be observed as one of his arguments. “There are some communities that live in a total segregated society. They live in a diaspora, relationship, except the inevitable and the legal situation is normally precarious [. . . ] ” (Weber 221). It was a very common characteristic of Brazil, considering problems of ethnicity, even nowadays.
A marvelous scenery of a retrospective of the evolution of the theater along the time and throughout the world can be observed if one centers the eyes from the left to the right, in order to readwhat Poty wants to transmit. He starts with the presentation of a pine (symbol of the South of Brazil – - Araucaria angustifolia - -), and an old citizen contrasting with a young girl, the fire, and a mask. Then, a second moment, showing a pathway, directing to a town. Right after, a big eye, some architectonic lines and the figure of a couple of cangaçeiros – - a typical personage from the North of Brazil . Poty also sets a group of dancers, involved in abstract representations, and an angel can be seen very close to signs. He puts two ladies side by side. One is overdressed with a long dress and holds a fan. The second one is very modern and carries a purse. The last moment centered on the right portrays a globe, being carried by a chariot. Many instruments can also be seen like a harp, a violin, and a trumpet. Finally, a man wearing a hat can be noticed on the back. The total image of the façade remains inside the boards.
If for any reason, Poty’s work came to print mainly historical values concerned about regional cultural aspects, as he always does, that was not Gaudi’s preoccupation, because the Secret Family is a religious universal symbol. But “Poty is also referred as portraying universal values, no matter it had regional focus.”10 So, both can be considered similar in terms of this reference.
Gaudi should be much more helpful for the humanity if he had worked only with his designs and projects, reserving builders the responsibility to incorporate values to the buildings. But this is utopia. It sounds that he had to be everything. Nowadays, with the division of the work, consolidated mainly with the contemporary vision of the world, it sounds that people know exactly how short life is to reserve so many realizations for only one man (Gaudi’s death is related with stress). Poty works with different plans and Gaudi with volume (His figures are represented in natural side). It is very interesting to notice that Gaudi represents animals, much more realistic than human figures.
Gaudi is being considered a Saint. He could project not only a complement (façade) as part of the building. Gaudi was one century in front of his time, and besides Picasso, Miró and many ones, he could make of Barcelona the number one city in terms of style, aesthetics, innovation, attracting people from several different nationalities to contemplate his extraordinary production of works, influencing even Portinari one of the most Brazilian famous artists. And Curitiba has an atmosphere of a special “elsewhere” inviting people to fulfill the emptiness of the architectonic creations metaphorically using Poty’s works as an invitation to attract visitors. With a modern vision Poty incorporates historical evidences wherever it is possible to modern buildings, which seems to be the opposite in Gaudi’s work, because he demonstrates the modern creations incorporating biblical references mainly to a gothic building (Secret Family Temple), proper of medieval architecture, maybe because of his extreme religiosity. But it is not a general topic of his creations. His work is as energetic as Poty’s.
In conclusion, it can be inferred from this approach that the submerged industrial society takes with it all the principles mainly in the two last centuries. Modern architecture is coming down because the moral legitimization of its aesthetics and philosophical reasons don’t exist any more. However, [. . . ] “ Modernity as Baudelaire wrote in his article The painter of modern life printed in 1863, is the transitory, the escapable, the contingent, it is half of the art, being the other half the eternal and immutable” (Harvey 21).
People can have interfaces of different interpretations of urban life and open a space to every new conception of art itself. As Laila Tarran mentioned in an interview: “There is no innocent look”. And there is a code of spaces in all the cities nowadays. Space for leisure, residential areas, business area, marketing, parks, shopping centers, churches, hospitals, and so on. Do works of Arts add anything to these spaces, or do they diminish the functionality of that certain space? It is not uncommon to listen people saying: “But this Poty’s mural was a fortune for the government … “Or, “Gaudi should have spent all the money of the families in a very difficult time (War)…”. As Mirabeau says: [. . . ] civilization does not do any good for the society if it’s not the form and substance of virtue ( Elias 54).
Like Barcelona, Curitiba got the right concept of property on setting the arts printing out a unique language in terms of style. “Artists reported the past looking to the future” (Taylor177).
As Stella Pandell Russell reports “… Everyone can share in the impulse to create, although we are not all creative to the same degree” [. . . ] (Russell 21). And this is wonderful, because each human has a different conception and interpretation of reality. The fact that both artists have printed personality to these places must be considered not only as a manifestation of human extraordinary potentiality to create but also the necessity to have an encounter with beauty, and abstract its relative concept, by casually passing in front of public edification that immortalize the life of each town and the personality of the artists.
However Gaudi and Poty had proper style, and very specific focus in terms of thematic performance, it cannot be ignored by the eyes of the planers of Curitiba, who could abstract from traditional towns in Europe, some very notorious concepts of urban concurrent planning accidentally and suitable introduced them in the town. As much as one sees, as much one can look! It’s up to anyone
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About the Author
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